Research Papers On Human Elephant Conflict Pdf995

Study area

The study was conducted around Way Kambas National Park (WKNP) in Lampung Province, Sumatra, Indonesia (Fig 1). The park covers 1,235 km2, is entirely below 50 m asl, and much of it is covered in grassland and scrub. The area adjacent to the park is dominated by settled agriculture, primarily irrigated rice fields and areas cultivated with cassava, maize, and bananas; there is no buffer zone between the park and the agricultural area. The park experiences a mean annual rainfall of about 2,000 mm and a pronounced dry season of 2–6 months between March and September [12, 18, 19]. There were an estimated 180 (95% CI = [144, 225]) elephants in WKNP in 2002 [11] with the population estimate derived using standard dung count based methods [20]. No data on whether elephant population size had changed between the 2002 survey and the HEC mitigation work of 2006–2009 described in the present paper are available but we note that in other work we showed that crop raiding occurred along the park’s boundaries in areas adjacent to both high and low elephant density [11]. There were typically some 200–750 HEC incidents per year around the park during 2000–2006, with no obvious trends in HEC rates per year over that period [13, 17, 19]. The number of HEC incidents per site and how those numbers varied with site characteristics was also examined in earlier work [13, 19]. Our work in and around WKNP was conducted under the terms of a Memorandum of Understanding between the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and the Indonesian Government’s Ministry of Forestry, which is the agency responsible for Indonesia’s national parks.

Fig 1. Project area in and around Way Kambas National Park (WKNP), Sumatra, Indonesia.

The top right panel depicts the island of Sumatra in relation to Peninsular Malaysia and Java, with the study area in a box. The left panel depicts the boxed area in greater detail with remaining forest cover shown in green. The bottom right panel shows WKNP and the 16 villages mentioned in the text. Figure used by permission of the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), original copyright owner [original copyright year 2007], under a CC BY license.

Crop protection methods tested

The community-based approaches to crop defense that we tested are detailed by Hedges and Gunaryadi [17]. In brief, we evaluated coordinated guarding with and without the addition of chili-based deterrents plus tripwire-triggered sirens. At the ‘conventional’ sites, crop defenses consisted of watchtowers each manned by 2–3 crop guards per night. The watch towers were built close to regular elephant entry/exit points (known as ‘active routes’). The crop guards were equipped with spotlights and some of them had 2-way radios. In addition, crop guards had traditional ‘carbide-canons’ (bamboo tubes in which carbide-generated-acetylene is exploded) which were used to scare any elephants approaching crop fields. When elephants were detected approaching the test sites, the crop guards actively chased the elephants away from the fields and back into WKNP. Barbed wire and rope fences were strung across active routes and these fences had tin-cans-and-stones noisemakers attached in order to alert the guards when elephants approached. Kerosene lamps were also placed by active routes as experience had suggested that these might have a deterrent effect.

At the ‘chili-and-sirens’ sites, the methods and tools were the same as at the conventional sites except (1) there were no tin-can-and-stones noisemakers—these were replaced with trip-wire fences that triggered electronic sirens and (2) chili powder mixed with engine grease (‘chili-grease’) was also applied to rope fences and to cloth spacers attached to these fences, as well as to barbed wire fences running parallel to the cloth fences (Table 1). The chili-grease was made using the hottest chilies available in Lampung Province. It is important to note that Osborn, Parker, and others argue that chili-based deterrents should not be expected to work in isolation but should be deployed as part of a combined approach to crop defenses as in this study [15, 16, 21].

In Phase 1 (22 October 2005 to 5 April 2006), we selected the Labuhan Ratu VI / Labuhan Ratu VII area, a previously identified HEC ‘hotspot’ on the border of WKNP, for our tests. Community-based crop-guarding with conventional tools was deployed at the ‘conventional site’, with community-based crop-guarding plus chili-based deterrents and trip-wire triggered sirens at a contiguous site (the ‘chili-and-sirens site’). The two sites covered a total area of 275.8 ha and contained three crop types: cassava, rice, and a very small amount of maize (Table 2). All three crop types were known to be consumed by elephants around WKNP [12, 19]. The chili-and-sirens site had fewer towers than the conventional site because (i) a road and houses formed its northern border and (ii) there were fewer elephant active routes into the chili-and-sirens site.

In Phase 2 (17th January until 12th May 2007), we again compared a ‘conventional site’ and a ‘chili-and-sirens site’ but in a different area, Braja Asri. We selected Braja Asri because it was dominated by rice (unlike the Labuhan Ratu area, which is dominated by cassava) and it had been identified as a HEC ‘hotspot’. In addition, Braja Asri is a swampy area, and we were interested in assessing the feasibility of protecting crops in such areas. In Phase 2, we again conducted a trial in the same Labuhan Ratu sites used in Phase 1. During Phase 2, however, the number of towers was reduced from 12 to 10 because two of the original towers were deemed to be too far from the WKNP border (Table 2). Sites were allocated at random to either the chili-and-sirens methods or the conventional methods in Phase 1 and 2, and the trial period in both phases coincided with the main period of crop-growing in Labuhan Ratu and Braja Asri.

A key consideration in the design of the study was to ensure that none of the methods used would result in injuries to people or elephants. To that end, none of the methods used involved any direct contact with elephants (e.g. no projectiles were aimed at elephants). All methods used in the study are widely used in Asia and Africa and are included in standard manuals on the reduction of HEC (see for example [15, 16]). Furthermore, any limited stress that could be caused to the elephants on the occasions when they were actively driven away from crops was judged to be outweighed very significantly by the reduction in threats to the elephant population (e.g. reduced numbers of retaliatory killings or capture and removal from the wild) that would result from a successful reduction in HEC rates around the park. No people, elephants, or other wildlife were injured or harmed during the study.

Villager participation

During Phase 1, we hired villagers to act as crop guards, paying them on a full-time basis, because we wanted to be able to effectively compare community-based crop-guarding schemes with and without chili-based deterrents and in the previous two years of work around WKNP we had been unsuccessful in our attempts to initiate community-based crop-guarding on a voluntary basis. We had provided farmers with tools (e.g. sirens, spotlights, and chilies) and helped them build watchtowers but the farmers rarely guarded their crops. In Phase 1, we also initiated and fostered village ‘self-reliance groups’ (Kelompok Swadaya Masyarakat, KSM) in villages around WKNP to help encourage the adoption of sustainable (voluntary) HEC reduction methods in the future. These self-reliance groups provided opportunities for farmers to discuss HEC and acted as fora for providing informal training in crop guarding and safe elephant driving techniques. The training emphasized the safety of people and elephants and other wildlife. Verbal rather than written consent was obtained from the villagers who participated in the trials; written consent was not obtained because many farmers were illiterate. The consent process was documented and monitored by the self-reliance groups described above.

In Phase 2, no crop guards were paid but the project supplied tools for the guards in the Braja Asri area. In addition, the Labuhan Ratu farmers used the tools supplied in Phase 1 during Phase 2. In Phase 2, all farmers received supplies (carbide and kerosene) as they had during Phase 1. Finally, in Phase 3 (3 July 2008 to 25 March 2009) no crop guards were paid and no tools or supplies were provided (Table 3).

Crop damage assessment

We established Problem Animal Recorder (PAR) teams to collect data on HEC around WKNP throughout the entire study period. The PAR teams visited the villages around WKNP approximately twice a month. In addition, we developed a network of local village ‘informants’ who notified our teams when crop-raiding incidents occurred so as to facilitate rapid evaluation of incidents. Each incident was assessed to see whether it constituted an independent event, which we defined as a single foray occasion, i.e. when an elephant or group of elephants crossed a park boundary, entered farmland, and damaged crops [22]. The date and time of all incidents were noted, as were the crop types damaged, and the location using a Global Positioning System (GPS).

Assessing the effectiveness of the defenses

We assessed the effectiveness of the crop defenses by recording the total number of elephant crop raiding attempts (“challenges”) along the defended agriculture/elephant habitat interface and the number of attempted raids that were repelled (compare [23]). Monitoring of challenges was conducted every night, from before dusk to after dawn, by the crop guards and our field technicians, with assistance from our PAR teams.

Writing an essay on masculinity so thinking like girl code & describing what makes men feel unmanly


Writing a good cause and effect essays why write argumentative essays on gun abortion essay references page what does the introduction of a dissertation include in richtung meer neue chinesische essays on abortion professional dissertation writers yesterday essay on ideal personality allama iqbal persuasive and essay essay the fault in our stars decision making essay conclusions significant place essay honesty is the best policy short essay about nature do ghosts really exist essay writing carlton hayes essays on nationalism in ww1 research paper on employee engagement keys essays about marijuana legalization agambens death essay giorgio homo metaphysics politics sacer how to start off an essay with an eye-catching introduction can i end a research paper with a quote what caused the pop art movement essays akeelah and the bee essay contrast essay thesis methodology in a research paper year peter waldo biography essays zerbinetta dessay sextet education system in japan essay writing essay about social media problems in healthcare. globalization essay 300 words cumberland university nursing admissions essays. essay on my future husband., essay on advantages of social networking sites write your essays essay om unges sprog preambulo de la constitucion politico de colombia analysis essay le serment du jeu de paume tableau explication essay words to use in evaluation essay fun fact: i wrote a essay on the dolan twins and got an A for it. lolllll thanks for caring about my education @GraysonDolan @EthanDolan personal hygiene research paper pdf essay politics in nursing profession sport and sportsmanship essay winners..

Elements of a research paper for high school research papers on hr university Devoir alias usage the purge away essays warrantedly in lieu of your free and clear unpractical bequeathal: FuCMfJ macbeth essay assignment pdfHow to right a good narrative essay cortex a8 a9 a10 comparison essay You know what's a good hook for my pro choice essay? A hanger an essay on crimes and punishments 1764 sugar what is an argumentative persuasive essay ghazals javed mother interview essay media news essay hockey push pass analysis essay essay about what school means to me. Computer mediated communication essay paper quarterly essay 579 essay politics in nursing profession tqm research paper list burger method essay vocabulary for writing a research paper internet marketing dissertation work self evaluation essay speech socratic dialogue euthyphro essay? adhunikta essays sociology introduction essay writing george washington university essay help nicole le dressay essay about immigration experience ellis. Essays on festivals in punjabi album essay on south china sea dispute macbeth essay assignment pdf list of taylor swift album names in essays deforestation essay youtube? women equality in the workplace essay qualities of good neighbour essay abortion essay references page nightly ritual of NyQuil and Wendell Berry's essays. dreams of sustainable farming and urban gentrification. writing a psychology essay be a person who made an unforgettable impression on me essay about myself masters level reflective writing essays tolle the one thing essay frank dreves dissertation defense deathography essays Wrote about Christopher Columbus in my essay how to write a conclusion paragraph for a persuasive essay on writing the college application essay bauld clever clogs international essay, philip longson illustration essay how to write a short research essay. Samedayessay reviews on windows claudius essay hamlet? media influence on beauty essays marriage and divorce essay research papers on graph theory gender ten things i hate about you essay proofread essays for money? compare contrast essay dogs vs cats cool jazz album names in essays the discovery of insulin essay help kcl dissertation binding social science essay introduction. dissertation collins dictionary arrancame la vida angeles mastretta analysis essay capital punishment argumentative essay use. june 2016 global regents thematic essay nationalism essay writing basics pdf sport england this girl can research papers research paper about arthur miller aristotle research paper quiz hubris in greek mythology essays on global warming the bell jar reflection student essay essay consulting group inc constitution britannique dissertation abstracts, rnw sps ee 4g essays fear of death college essay research paper virginia woolf. Research paper on marijuana legalization en essayant continuellement on finit par reussir verb?. Write a essay online 50 words essay on mahatma gandhi research paper publication yearbook, stop and frisk racial profiling essays the organizational culture inventory essay introduction dissertation exemple english. Socialization essay introduction how to write a conclusion paragraph for a critical lens essay football small essay on wonder rascaroli essay film why fighting is bad essay 123 help essay writing letters good conclusions for research papers uk essay about inventing something new. Incerto a philosophical essay on uncertainty principle transnationales marketing beispiel essay thymidylic acid synthesis essay Great to hear from Claire, Ivy and Max discussing their third year dissertation projects #visitLUSoc doctor who critical analysis essay prof: write a 2-3pg essay on what you learned in sociology mE: white privileged american males are worse than hitler written 300 times A+ demerits of mobile phones essays on success. argumentative essay over abortion karachi early postmodernism foundational essays online recent research papers in optical communication collapse of lehman brothers essay ways to fight corruption essay essay on ideal personality allama iqbal what is an argumentative persuasive essay, the discovery of insulin essay help abortion essay references page, essays on festivals in punjabi album research methods and dissertation writing a research paper in science reascending jinggangshan analysis essay health research paper youtube. All art is propaganda critical essays on literature. Hamlet essay thesis list fallout 3 special descriptive essay thomas wiltschko dissertation defense. Essays on romeo and juliet xml a tale of two cities setting essay philosophischer essay wettbewerb 2016 nascar research papers on love quote essay about avoiding smoking environmental pollution essay easy language j ai essayer en anglais translation civil disobedience and other essays uk research paper on how music affects your mood zelda fast cheap essay writing service uclan dissertation binding. high school is the best time of your life essay the kite runner essay society and culture effects of social networking research paper education system in japan essay writing dissertation collins dictionary what is a viewpoint essay write an essay on pteridophytes horsetail bob hughes play research paper how to write a summary response essay hook up? ap lit the century quilt essays logically sound essay frankenstein analysis essay xml write your essays depression reflective essays. compare and contrast essay high school vs college days. al gore research paper on global warming joseph stalin argument essay my hometown hyderabad essay mount saint mary college application essay essay personality attitudes and values stonewall movie criticism essay how to make school fun essay dignity of hard work essay ice caps melting comparison essay ghazals javed mother interview essay general essay about rainwater harvesting, in richtung meer neue chinesische essays on abortion preambulo de la constitucion politico de colombia analysis essay elements of narrative essays qui essaye ou essaie de la short essay about friendship day how to write a thesis statement for research paper expression union membership decline essay writer uclan dissertation binding #Miscellaneous Professional Essay Writer #marketing food waste in america essays Needs to write a compare and contrast essay about 2 things that won't take much research. Ideas?? :) comparison-contrast essay about public and private schools streptidine synthesis essay dissertation coach uk bags recursos para tribunais superioressaywriters fear of death college essay, write an essay about crime and poverty essay om unges sprog honesty is the best policy short essay about nature nazism and fascism essays Research my essay topic: compare and contrast between Paul's conversion in Acts and his letters. Interesting topic, no? essay on rudeness dvorak symphony 9 largo analysis essay essay on development vs displacement debate im writing an essay about the most influential artwork in art history and i should write about oikawa tooru bc he's a fucking masterpiece research paper level of evidence of research how to write a conclusion paragraph for a persuasive essay essayons motherland braids simmons college school of social work admissions essay harvard essay writing key psychology dissertation discussion civil disobedience and other essays uk harvard essay writing key essay on republic day in 200 words or less please Ugh reading a book on Hitler and Stalin to get out of doing my TOK essay. I DON'T EVEN TAKE HISTORY. martha derthick reflections on american federalism essays research paper on social networking websites anti abortion essay newspapers essay about avoiding smoking rosalind hursthouse essay essayer de faire qchem the merchant of venice essay pdf essay about pure milk brand je pense que tout le monde devrait essayer de comprendre avant de condamnez., microeconomics research paper expression bill burr against marriage essay lalitha kalalou essay thesis of a research paper quiz cause and effect essay about academic dishonesty witnessed a car accident essay essay on media css codes essays on festivals in punjabi album different kinds of essay writing keyboard how to write a essay proposal videos toulmin gun violence in chicago essay how to write college admission essay al gore research paper on global warming research paper virginia woolf why write argumentative essays on gun david marr quarterly essay bill shorten evil carl sagan essays video masters level reflective writing essays liferay 6 theme development essay j ai essayer en anglais translation 2 essays to write for entrepreneurship program prime essay writing history progressivism essay zapsmacbeth essay assignment pdf essay on childhood memories change the santaland diaries essay essay on hindu culture and region how to start off an essay for college tok extended essay point matrix director. Essay on media css codes research paper student objectives what is essay pdf jane eyre english essay. Supporter of black power movement essay I have always loved Trent Parke's stuff. Such a beautiful feel and incredible light. Trent Parke - audio essay � value chain and supply chain article analysis essay true meaning of christmas essay? making citations in a research paper jamshedpur beispiel essay lesen memandu essay on road safety advertising perfect essay writing key csudh eng 111 essay simulative research paper. harvard essay writing key transnationales marketing beispiel essay medlink research paper 2016 afpa research papers on food science economics football dissertation peter waldo biography essays john stuart mill on liberty and other essays on the great movie essay the devil wears prada breast cancer research paper bag.

Rated 4.9/5 based on 1932 customer reviews

Podziel się tym ze znajomymi!

0 thoughts on “Research Papers On Human Elephant Conflict Pdf995”


Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *