What is a comparative essay?
A comparative essay asks that you compare at least two (possibly more) items. These items will differ depending on the assignment. You might be asked to compare
- positions on an issue (e.g., responses to midwifery in Canada and the United States)
- theories (e.g., capitalism and communism)
- figures (e.g., GDP in the United States and Britain)
- texts (e.g., Shakespeare’s Hamletand Macbeth)
- events (e.g., the Great Depression and the global financial crisis of 2008–9)
Although the assignment may say “compare,” the assumption is that you will consider both the similarities and differences; in other words, you will compare and contrast.
Make sure you know the basis for comparison
The assignment sheet may say exactly what you need to compare, or it may ask you to come up with a basis for comparison yourself.
- Provided by the essay question: The essay question may ask that you consider the figure of the gentleman in Charles Dickens’s Great Expectations and Anne Brontë’s The Tenant of Wildfell Hall. The basis for comparison will be the figure of the gentleman.
- Developed by you: The question may simply ask that you compare the two novels. If so, you will need to develop a basis for comparison, that is, a theme, concern, or device common to both works from which you can draw similarities and differences.
Develop a list of similarities and differences
Once you know your basis for comparison, think critically about the similarities and differences between the items you are comparing, and compile a list of them.
For example, you might decide that in Great Expectations, being a true gentleman is not a matter of manners or position but morality, whereas in The Tenant of Wildfell Hall, being a true gentleman is not about luxury and self-indulgence but hard work and productivity.
The list you have generated is not yet your outline for the essay, but it should provide you with enough similarities and differences to construct an initial plan.
Develop a thesis based on the relative weight of similarities and differences
Once you have listed similarities and differences, decide whether the similarities on the whole outweigh the differences or vice versa. Create a thesis statement that reflects their relative weights. A more complex thesis will usually include both similarities and differences. Here are examples of the two main cases:
- Differences outweigh similarities:
While Callaghan’s “All the Years of Her Life” and Mistry’s “Of White Hairs and Cricket” both follow the conventions of the coming-of-age narrative, Callaghan’s story adheres more closely to these conventions by allowing its central protagonist to mature. In Mistry’s story, by contrast, no real growth occurs.
- Similarities outweigh differences:
Although Darwin and Lamarck came to different conclusions about whether acquired traits can be inherited, they shared the key distinction of recognizing that species evolve over time.
Come up with a structure for your essay
- Alternating method: Point-by-point patternIn the alternating method, you find related points common to your central subjects A and B, and alternate between A and B on the basis of these points (ABABAB …). For instance, a comparative essay on the French and Russian revolutions might examine how both revolutions either encouraged or thwarted innovation in terms of new technology, military strategy, and the administrative system.
A Paragraph 1 in body new technology and the French Revolution B Paragraph 2 in body new technology and the Russian Revolution A Paragraph 3 in body military strategy and the French Revolution B Paragraph 4 in body military strategy and the Russian Revolution A Paragraph 5 in body administrative system and the French Revolution B Paragraph 6 in body administrative system and the Russian Revolution
Note that the French and Russian revolutions (A and B) may be dissimilar rather than similar in the way they affected innovation in any of the three areas of technology, military strategy, and administration. To use the alternating method, you just need to have something noteworthy to say about both A and B in each area. Finally, you may certainly include more than three pairs of alternating points: allow the subject matter to determine the number of points you choose to develop in the body of your essay.
When do I use the alternating method? Professors often like the alternating system because it generally does a better job of highlighting similarities and differences by juxtaposing your points about A and B. It also tends to produce a more tightly integrated and analytical paper. Consider the alternating method if you are able to identify clearly related points between A and B. Otherwise, if you attempt to impose the alternating method, you will probably find it counterproductive.
- Block method: Subject-by-subject patternIn the block method (AB), you discuss all of A, then all of B. For example, a comparative essay using the block method on the French and Russian revolutions would address the French Revolution in the first half of the essay and the Russian Revolution in the second half. If you choose the block method, however, do not simply append two disconnected essays to an introductory thesis. The B block, or second half of your essay, should refer to the A block, or first half, and make clear points of comparison whenever comparisons are relevant. (“Unlike A, B . . .” or “Like A, B . . .”) This technique will allow for a higher level of critical engagement, continuity, and cohesion.
A Paragraphs 1–3 in body How the French Revolution encouraged or thwarted innovation B Paragraphs 4–6 in body How the Russian Revolution encouraged or thwarted innovation
When do I use the block method? The block method is particularly useful in the following cases:
- You are unable to find points about A and B that are closely related to each other.
- Your ideas about B build upon or extend your ideas about A.
- You are comparing three or more subjects as opposed to the traditional two.
Next, the sounds were different in Idaho from those in San Francisco. In Idaho, the sounds were those typical of a farm: the barking of dogs, the mooing of the cows, the whistling of wind in the trees. The sounds of the night were always my favorite. At sundown, the coyotes started to howl, and the sound echoed eerily from the surrounding forests and hills. The frogs answered with a cacophony of croaks from the creek at the bottom of the hill, and the crickets added to the noise. The cattle and the dog joined in, too. If I listened quietly, I could hear the wind whistle around the corner of the house. Sometimes, the annoying buzz of a mosquito would add to the sound mix. The air was alive with sound, but the sounds were those of nature. I could listen or not listen because the sounds weren’t intrusive. Even in town, the rare sound of a siren only meant that the deputy was on his way home to dinner and was signaling his wife to set the table.
In San Francisco, my ears were assaulted by the sounds of the city: the honking of cars, yelling of people, and wailing of sirens. My first night in the city was a horror! I couldn’t sleep all night. My dorm room was across the street from St. Francis Memorial Hospital, right in the middle of the city. The emergency room faced the dorm. All night long, I could hear the ambulances and the sirens as they raced to the emergency entrance. I could hear the ambulance attendants talking to the nurses. I could hear the cars going by incessantly, braking and accelerating with the change of the traffic light on the corner. I couldn’t hear myself think! This was not pleasant background sounds of nature; it was intrusive, loud, human-made noise that was inescapable. I learned to fight noise with noise: my stereo against the outside world.
Last, the people seemed totally different in Idaho from those in San Francisco. (This is not an exaggeration. They were a different species altogether.) In Idaho, people were pretty much the same—color-wise and everything-else-wise. My father was a typical “blue collar” person (except his collar was usually green). He was a farmer and drove a school bus to make ends meet. He wore blue overalls over black work pants and a dark green shirt—everyday. He had one suit in his entire life. He wore it to weddings and funerals. He also had one tie and one white shirt. My mother made her own clothes and mine, too, until I got old enough to make my own, so everything had a homemade, flowered-print sort of look. People worked, went to church, cooked, ate, and lived very similar lives. They didn’t beg on the streets, and they didn’t appear to be confused about their genders, at least not in public.
In San Francisco, on the other hand, the people were a revelation! There were people in uniforms, in suits, in rags—all kinds of people. On my first walk down Market street, I saw beggars in filthy clothes sitting on the sidewalks with signs, “Help me, I’m hungry.” There was also a blind man playing an accordion, with a can for donations in front of him. Then, there were the men with makeup . . .not that there’s anything wrong with that!. However, I’d never seen a man wear makeup; I didn’t even know there were men who might want to wear makeup. I was completely confused as to why both men and women, wearing hot pants, would be standing around on street corners in the cold San Francisco weather. It seemed like a strange fashion statement to make. Added to that, there were Asians, and African Americans, and East Indians, and Greeks, and Russians, and Mexicans, and everything else. The people were confusing, fascinating, amazing, and truly wonderful!